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Sections: Prologue | The distinction Era (1900–1939) | human being War II and Post battle (1940–1949) | Civil rights Era (1950–1963) | The Civil legal rights Act the 1964 | Immediate impact of the Civil rights Act | Epilogue
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Warren K. Leffler. Fannie Lou Hamer at the democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, new Jersey, respectable 1964. Photographic print. U.S. News and also World Report Magazine photo Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of conference (203.00.00)


The Civil legal rights Act the 1964 accelerated the finish of legit Jim Crow. That secured african Americans equal access to restaurants, transportation, and other public facilities. It enabled blacks, women, and also other decimal to failure barriers in the workplace. It likewise made accessibility to equal education and learning a fact for the plenty of Southern and Northern african Americans who began attending incorporated schools in the wake of the act’s enforcement. The Voting legal rights Act that 1965 and also the Civil civil liberties Act the 1968 broadened these protections to voting and housing, and listed new protections against racially urged violence. The economic Opportunity plot of 1964 and President Johnson’s war on poverty complemented these civil rights landmarks by attacking the financial inequalities that had actually so lengthy accompanied racial discrimination and exclusion.

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The civil legal rights struggle and also the Civil civil liberties Act that 1964 also served as blueprints and inspiration for numerous other groups of american seeking equality and access. Title VII the the Civil legal rights Act, i beg your pardon barred employed discrimination based on sex as well as race, color, religion, and national origins, energized the women’s movement and led to the starting of the national Organization for ladies (NOW) in 1966. Dive by the remarkable success of the 1964 act, activists have encouraged Congress to safeguard such teams as older Americans, people with disabilities, and pregnant women so the they can participate completely in public and private life.

Even so, the struggle for equality is much from over. As transformative together the Civil legal rights Act that 1964 and also its successors have been, the exclusion, exploitation, and also discrimination the it targeted were deeply entrenched and also have proved challenging to end. The act and its subsequent enforcement proceed to prompt new debates around what equality means, what government can execute to encourage it, and also how simple Americans can proceed to achieve it. The future of polite rights, favor its past, will certainly be shame by citizens’ authorized in lobbying, litigation, politics, and public protests.


An act to enforce the constitutional ideal to vote, to confer jurisdiction top top the district courts the the united States, to carry out injunctive relief versus discrimination in windy accommodations, to authorize the Attorney general to academy suits to safeguard constitutional rights in publicly facilities and also public education, to expand the commission on polite Rights, to protect against discrimination in federally aided programs, to develop a the supervisory board on same Employment Opportunity, and for various other purposes.

The Civil civil liberties Act the 1964 contains eleven segments or Titles. Several of the Titles, specifically those that establish prohibitions on differentiate in windy accommodations (Title II), federal resources (Title VI), and employment (Title VII), have created a number of important cases in the courts. Other Titles, i beg your pardon were largely procedural in nature and also have generated couple of judicial interpretations in the years since, have not. Provided below certain Titles space selected cases in which the U.S. Can be fried Court or a reduced court authorize landmark decisions that established criterion for interpreting provisions the the act.


TITLE I: voting Rights


Barred unequal application of state voter registration requirements for commonwealth elections.


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African Americans, waiting to register to vote, form a lengthy line exterior the Dallas Courthouse in Selma, Alabama, February 1965. New York World-Telegram and the sun Newspaper Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library that Congress


Prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin in specific places of windy accommodation, such together hotels, restaurants, and also places of entertainment.

Heart the Atlanta Motel, Inc. V. U.S. (1964)Upheld the Civil rights Act of 1964 prohibition of race discrimination in hotels and motels as a valid practice of Congress’s Interstate commerce Clause strength (Georgia)Katzenbach v. McClung (1964)Upheld the Civil rights Act that 1964 prohibition of race discrimination in restaurants together a valid exercise of Congress’s Interstate business Clause power (Alabama)Hamm v. City of rock Hill (1964)Dismissed state breach-of-the-peace charges against sit-in demonstrators in ~ a lunch counter since the fees conflicted with the Civil legal rights Act that 1964 (South Carolina)
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TITLE IV: Desegregation of windy Education



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TITLE VI: Nondiscrimination in Federally helped Programs

Prohibited differentiate by recipients of commonwealth funds on the basis of race, color, and also national origin.

Lau v. Nichols (1974)Ruled a school that welcomed federal funds and also did not provide adequate English process or other educational benefits to college student of Chinese ancestry, who did not speak English, violated Title through of the Civil rights Act of 1964 (California)Cannon v. University of Chicago (1979)Determined that Title VI developed a exclusive remedy as well as authorized the withholding of federal funds from education programs the discriminated ~ above the communication of race (Illinois)Alexander v. Sandoval (2001)Determined that Title VI just authorized private remedies because that lawsuits based upon intentional discrimination and also not on proof of disparate affect (Alabama)Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)Held that discrimination, which violates Equal security Clause of Fourteenth Amendment, cursed by an school that accepts commonwealth funds additionally constitutes violation of Title by means of (Michigan)

TITLE VII: equal Employment Opportunity



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TITLE X: neighborhood Relations Service

Created the community Relations service to aid communities in resolving conflicts relating to discrimination practices based on race, color, or nationwide origin.

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Hernandez v. Erlenbusch (1973)Referred a situation involving a tavern the had embraced a plan prohibiting the usage of a international language at the bar to the community Relations business to watch if castle could administer assistance (Oregon)Goldsby v. Carnes (1977)Described just how the ar Relations organization assisted the next to a consent judgment about the problems and management of a ar jail (Missouri)

TITLE XI: Court Proceedings and Legalities

In any kind of proceeding because that criminal contempt developing under silverlakestyle.comation II, III, IV, V, VI, or VII that this act, the accused, upon need therefore, chandelier be licensed has been granted to a trial by jury.

United says v. Rapone (1997)Held the a department of Corrections official charged v criminal contempt because that violating court stimulate prohibiting retaliation against witnesses was entitled come a jury trial under title XI (Washington, D.C.)

Civil rights Activist Ruby Sales Interviewed by Joseph Mosnier in 2011






Home | Exhibition overview | Exhibition items | Timelines | Multimedia | Public program | Learn an ext | Acknowledgments

Sections: Prologue | The distinction Era (1900–1939) | world War II and Post battle (1940–1949) | Civil legal rights Era (1950–1963) | The Civil legal rights Act the 1964 | Immediate impact of the Civil rights Act | Epilogue