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Race come the optimal was the seminal policy of Secretary Arne Duncan"s room of education and learning term. It was a revolutionary designed to induce competition among states and also school districts for federally allocated grants. Duncan suggested that the motivation to achieve Federal approve money and also the result competition would spur innovation and improve student achievement. The routine was sponsor by the American Recovery and also Reinvestment plot of 2009 and had an initial spending plan of $4.35 billion. To become eligible, states essential to satisfy a "Common Core" of success standards. Says proposed sweeping reform objectives and then submit give proposals because that programs they think would achieve the missions outlined. Proposals were measured against a scoring criteria, and also grants were awarded. The room of education and learning then measured states" progression towards your target goals as the grant renewal process proceeded. Several states were unable to satisfy proposed targets in gyeongju to the top funded programs. As a result, approve allocation slowed significantly after 3 initial rounds. In 2012, the room of Education started a brand-new grant allocation round -- race to the Top-District -- in which college districts, rather than state school systems, may use for gyeongju to the height program grants.<128>

Common Core

The race to the Top common Core standards were developed by the national Association that Governors and the board of directors of cook State college Officers. They were "informed by the highest, most reliable models indigenous states throughout the country and countries approximately the people and provide teachers and parents with a usual understanding the what students room expected to learn" in order come "provide a clear and consistent structure to prepare our children for college and the workforce." Forty-five states and the ar of Columbia, in addition to four territories, embraced Common core Standards. Arisen specifically because that English Language Arts and Mathematics instruction, "the Standards space (1) research and evidence based, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and also (4) around the world benchmarked."<129>

Grant criteria

Grants room rewarded based upon these scores and also subsequent rankings:<130>

A. State Success components (125 points)(A)(1) Articulating State’s education and learning reform agenda and LEAs’ authorized in it (65 points)(A)(2) Building solid statewide volume to implement, range up, and also sustain proposed plans (30 points)(A)(3) Demonstrating far-ranging progress in raising achievement and closeup of the door gaps (30 points)B. Standards and Assessments (70 points)(B)(1) Developing and also adopting usual standards (40 points)(B)(2) Developing and implementing common, high-quality assessments (10 points)(B)(3) supporting the shift to intensified standards and also high-quality assessments (20 points)C. Data equipment to support Instruction (47 points)(C)(1) completely implementing a statewide longitudinal data system (24 points)(C)(2) Accessing and using State data (5 points)(C)(3) using data to improve instruction (18 points)D. An excellent Teachers and also Leaders (138 points)(D)(1) providing high-quality pathways because that aspiring teachers and also principals (21 points)(D)(2) boosting teacher and principal effectiveness based on performance (58 points)(D)(3) Ensuring equitable circulation of effective teachers and principals (25 points)(D)(4) boosting the efficiency of teacher and principal preparation programs (14 points)(D)(5) Providing reliable support come teachers and also principals (20 points)E. Turning Around the Lowest-Achieving institutions (50 points)(E)(1) Intervening in the lowest-achieving schools and LEAs (10 points)(E)(2) transforming around the lowest-achieving colleges (40 points)F. General an option Criteria (55 points)(F)(1) do education funding a priority (10 points)(F)(2) Ensuring successful problems for high-performing charters and also other innovative institutions (40 points)(F)(3) Demonstrating other significant reform problems (5 points)Goals

The purposes of the gyeongju to the optimal reforms were:<130>

to usage data to educate instructionto raise achievement standards and also graduation ratesto turn around historically low-performing schoolsto enhance teacher and principal quality.Opposing viewpointsSupporting viewpointsAmerican Federation of teacher president Randi Weingarten supported Race to the Top, yet in may of 2013, she dubbed for a moratorium on complete implementation:
Done right, typical Core requirements will "lead to a transformation in teaching and also learning" that puts crucial thinking, trouble solving and also teamwork ahead of rote memorization and endless test-taking, Weingarten said. Done wrong, "they will end up in the overflowing dustbin of exit reforms, with human being throwing up their hands, believing that public schools are too damaged to save.<133>
—American Federation that Teachers<134>

Race to the height grants recipients were announced in three initial rounds.<136><137><138>

Race to the Top provide allocations slowed significantly after the an initial three rounds as numerous states challenged delayed implementation that promised reforms.<139>

In 2012, the room of education and learning announced a brand-new round of give allocation -- race to the Top-District -- in i beg your pardon individual school districts and charter college programs would certainly be eligible because that grants. Sixteen grant winners to be selected in 2012. A second round of gyeongju to the Top-District grants will certainly be allocated, and in October 2013, 16 finalists because that were announced.<140><141>

Noteworthy events

Despite 45 states and four regions formally adopting gyeongju to the Top"s common Core, publicly backlash versus the brand-new standards came to be a regular occurance. Top top September 19, 2013, a team of parents in California protested the state"s fostering of typical Core once Secretary of education Arne Duncan (D) went to their city.<142> Duncan later attracted criticism in November 2013 as soon as he described the the opposite to typical Core as "white suburban moms who — every one of a suddenly — their child isn’t together brilliant as they believed they were, and also their school isn’t rather as good as they believed they were," to a group of state school superintendents.<143> on November 18, 2013, a variety of parents in at the very least 17 states, including South Carolina and new York, determined to keep their children home from institution as part of a "National typical Core Protest Day" to demonstrate opposition to common Core"s "one-size-fits all curriculum" and also standardized testing methods.<144><145> top top December 8, 2013, the Buffalo teacher Federation in brand-new York protested outside the residence the a state education regent in solution to typical Core implementation and its focus on continually trial and error students.<146>

In response to the public outcry, several states delayed implementation or rescinded fostering of the standards entirely. The Alabama state institution board voted come revoke their agreement to adhere come the common Core standards on November 14, 2013. However, their existing state standards were still in line with usual Core.<147> Alabama to be the just state to pull away completely from that is commitment to the common Core standards. However, others such as Pennsylvania and Indiana determined to halt implementation.<148><149> Louisiana decided to hold-up Common Core"s accountability actions for two years; additionally, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, Georgia and Michigan made decision to hold-up or abandon usual Core testing.<150><151><152><153><154>

Both Utah and Florida i was withdrawn from the Partnership for Assessment that Readiness for College and also Careers and Smarter balanced Assessment consortium, return both states planned come continue typical Core implementation.<155><156> In Ohio, Representative Andrew Thompson introduced house Bill 237 to the Ohio house of to represent in order to protect against the state indigenous implementing usual Core.<157>


Affordable treatment Act

See also: Obamacare overview

The patient Protection and Affordable care Act, frequently known as Obamacare, was passed in that finality on march 21, 2010, and signed into law by chairman Obama on march 23, 2010.<158>

The target of the legislation was to carry out an growth of health insurance coverage to an ext Americans v both individual health insurance marketplaces and through employer-provided plans. Minimum needs of coverage were established and both individual and also employer mandates were created over a period of years in stimulate to achieve the goal of broadened coverage. Subsidies and also tax credits are detailed to separation, personal, instance consumers based upon income level and also dependents, and existing programs such together medicaid and also CHIP were expanded to boost reach. Small businesses receive tax credits based on the level that insurance readily available to employees, as well.<159>

Ten crucial benefits because that coverage

The law contained ten essential benefits that plans created after the law"s passage required to include. Currently plans were grandfathered in, but couple of of the grandfathered to plan remain due to frequent transforms to health and wellness insurance policies.<160> The ten necessary benefits outlined through the ACA are:<161>

Ambulatory patience servicesEmergency servicesHospitalizationMaternity and newborn careMental health and also substance abuse disorder services, including behavior health treatmentPrescription drugsRehabilitative and habilitative services and also devicesLaboratory servicesPreventive and also wellness services and chronic an illness managementPediatric services, including oral and vision careContraception mandate in the can be fried CourtSee also: Obamacare lawsuits

On march 25, 2014, the can be fried Court heard the instance put front by understand Lobby and Conestoga timber Specialties. The case argued that mandated coverage that birth manage violated spiritual freedoms. Both companies" appeals were heard together throughout a one-hour windy session.<162>

The supreme Court ruled in favor of understand Lobby in Burwell v. Understand Lobby ~ above June 30, 2014. The 5-4 decision permitted companies come opt out of offering contraceptives on the communication of religious beliefs. Justice Samuel Alito created the court"s opinion, stating, "We doubt the the Congress that enacted RFRA — or, for the matter, ACA–would have thought it a tolerable result to put family-run businesses to the an option of violating their sincerely held religious beliefs or making all of their employees shed their existing medical care plans."<163>

The dissenting justices asserted the ruling would enable companies come "opt the end of any kind of law (saving only tax laws) they referee incompatible with their dear held spiritual beliefs." Likewise, the Obama management argued that service providers that did no wish to carry out the contraceptive coverage or other locations of coverage due to spiritual beliefs could decide not to carry out any company-wide options.<163>

Although the decision increased the notion of this firm personhood to include spiritual rights "to administer protection for person beings," members of the public discovered it extremely divisive in nature as it reaffirmed the Court"s "pro-business" stance.<164> Senate bulk Leader harry Reid (D-NV) pledged to restore the Affordable care Act"s contraception coverage, stating, "If the can be fried Court will not protect women’s accessibility to health and wellness care, climate Democrats will. Us will proceed to fight to preserve women’s access to contraceptive coverage and keep bosses out of the check room."<165>


Carbon cap executive order

On June 2, 2014, president Obama signed an executive order plan to cut carbon pollution in the United says by 30% the 2005 level by 2030. The order enabled states to individually recognize which policies would be an ext effective for them come reach your goals. A similar bill was discussed by Congress during Obama"s very first term in office, however it failed to pass. Obama supplied powers developed by the 1970 Clean Air action to authorize the executive order.<166> Legal obstacles were supposed to arise end the 645-page order. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy claimed of the rule, "This is no just about disappearing polar bear or melting ice cream caps. This is around protecting our health and also our homes. This is about protecting neighborhood economies and jobs."<167>

President Obama offered the EPA till June 2015 come finalize the rule, and states had until June 2016 to submit your plans, yet the EPA propelled the deadline because that states ago to 2017 for those functioning individually and also 2018 for those working with each other on plans.<167>

Possible ramifications

Coal plants to be most likely to be hit the hardest, with approximates that thousands of the nation"s 6,000 plants would be shut down by 2030. The chamber of commerce estimated that the brand-new rule could an outcome in a lowering of the gross residential product (GDP) through as lot as $50 billion annually.<166>

The united Mine workers of America (UMWA) president spoke out against the action, arguing 75,000 jobs can be shed by 2020. He stated, "The proposed preeminence … will bring about long-term and irreversible job losses for thousands of coal miners, electric workers, utility workers, boilermakers, railroad workers and others without achieving any significant reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions."<168> Additionally, democratic lawmakers and candidates in coal-driven claims came the end in opposition come the president"s plan. Those lawmakers consisted of Alison Lundergan Grimes, Natalie Tennant and also Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV).<169>

Executive orders

Response come VA problems

On august 26, 2014, president Obama announced 19 brand-new executive orders aimed at boosting the usability of Veterans affairs hospitals across the country in enhancement to providing other benefits for veterans. The executive orders enacted program in the adhering to areas.<170>

Access to quality healthcare - boosted efficiency, accountability and transparencyMental wellness initiatives because that veteransMortgage interest price reductionsStudent debt reliefImprovements ~ above the GI BillJob location programsCombating veteran homelessnessWorking with the disability cases backlog

State that the Union addresses

Every year in office, the president of the United says addresses congress on the current state the affairs and the administration"s goals for the coming year.<171> Addresses do by presidents in your inauguration years space not technically "State of the Union" addresses and are typically held in February.<172> adhering to are transcripts indigenous Obama"s State the the Union addresses.


U.S. President

2012See also: Endorsements by state officials of presidential candidates in the 2012 election

Obama sought and also won re-election together President the the United claims in 2012.<1><1>

Mitt Romney ran for the Republican Party, if Gary Johnson ran as a Libertarian and also Jill Stein ran for the green Party.

U.S. Presidential election, 2012
PartyCandidateVote %VotesElectoral votes
    Democratic Barack Obama/Joe Biden 53%69,498,516365
    Republican man McCain/Sarah Palin 45.7%59,948,323173
    Peace and Freedom Ralph Nader/Matt Gonzalez 0.6%739,0340
    Libertarian Bob Barr/Wayne Allyn root 0.4%523,7150
    Constitution chuck Baldwin/Darrell castle 0.2%199,7500
    Green Cynthia McKinney/Rosa Clemente 0.1%161,7970
Total Votes131,071,135538
Election outcomes via: main election results

Other candidates that showed up on the ballot received less than 0.1% the the vote. Those candidates included: Alan Keyes, Ron Paul, Gloria La Riva, Brian Moore, roger Calero, Richard Duncan, James Harris, Charles Jay, john Joseph Polachek, open minded Edward McEnulty, Jeffrey J. Wamboldt, cutting board Robert Stevens, Gene C. Amondson, Jeffrey Jeff Boss, George Phillies, Ted Weill, Jonathan E. Allen and Bradford Lyttle.<174>

Campaign donors

$715,677,6922008U.S. Presidency$14,964,184Grand complete raised$1,475,627,500Source: <<175><176><177> monitor the Money>


Obama won re-election come the U.S. Presidency in 2012. During that choice cycle, Obama"s project committee increased a total of $715,677,692 and spent $683,546,548.<178>

Cost per vote

Obama spent $10.37 every vote received in 2012.

Campaign donorsU.S. Presidency, 2012 - Barack Obama project Contributions
Total Raised$715,677,692
Total Spent$683,546,548
Total raised by choice Runner-up$446,135,997
Total invested by choice Runner-up$433,281,516
Top contributors come Barack Obama"s project committee
University the California$1,212,245
Microsoft Corp.$814,645
Google Inc.$801,770
U.S. Government$728,647
Harvard University$668,368
Top 5 markets that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$27,533,147
Health Professionals$10,456,340
Business Services$8,646,106


Obama won choice to the U.S. Presidency in 2008. Throughout that election cycle, Obama"s campaign committee raised a full of $744,985,624 and also spent $729,519,581.<179>

Cost every vote

Obama spent $10.50 per vote obtained in 2008.

Campaign donorsU.S. Presidency, 2008 - Barack Obama campaign Contributions
Total Raised$744,985,624
Total Spent$729,519,581
Total elevated by basic Election Opponent$368,039,764
Total invested by basic Election Opponent$333,375,676
Top contributors to Barack Obama"s project committee
University the California$1,799,460
Goldman Sachs$1,034,615
Harvard University$900,909
Microsoft Corp.$854,717
JPMorgan Chase and also Co.$847,895
Top 5 industries that added to project committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$46,988,063
Securities and also Investment$16,580,277
Health Professionals$13,864,142


Obama won election to the U.S. Senate in 2004. During that election cycle, Obama"s project committee elevated a full of $14,964,184 and also spent $14,371,464.<180>

Cost per vote

Obama invested $3.99 every vote obtained in 2004.

Campaign donorsU.S. Senate, 2004 - Barack Obama campaign Contributions
Total Raised$14,964,184
Total Spent$14,371,464
Total elevated by basic Election Opponent$2,803,878
Total invested by general Election Opponent$2,664,471
Top contributors to Barack Obama"s project committee
University the Chicago$153,054
Kirkland & Ellis$96,138
Henry Crown & Co.$76,000
Sidley, Austin et al$75,682
Exelon Corp.$73,450
Top 5 sectors that added to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$2,325,317
Securities and Investment$1,184,036
Real Estate$623,460

Candidate endorsements


Net Worth

See also: transforms in net Worth that U.S. Senators and also Representatives (Personal gain Index) and also Net precious of United claims Senators and Representatives2011

Based on conference financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by, Obama"s net worth together of 2011 was estimated in between $2,566,014.00 and $8,265,000.00. The averages to $5,415,507.00, i beg your pardon ranked 8th amongst executive branch members. His average calculated net worth<182> decreased by %2.6 native 2010.<183>


Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made accessible by, Obama"s net worth together of 2010 was estimated between $2,802,012.00 and also $11,830,000.00. That averages come $7,316,006.00, i m sorry ranked 9th amongst executive branch members.<184>

Elected office turnover

2012 elections

According to Sabato"s crystal Ball, the autonomous Party gained 8 U.S. Residence seats and also 2 Senate seat in 2012.

In state government elections, the autonomous Party shed one governor"s office and also gained regulate of two state legislatures.<185>

2010 elections

According to Sabato"s crystal Ball, the autonomous Party lost 63 U.S. Residence seats and also 6 Senate seat in 2010. The residence turnover was the largest differential because the 1948 basic election.

In state government elections, the democratic Party lost 8 governors" offices and also lost manage of 10 state legislatures. The sales in state legislature regulate was the largest differential because the 1974 general election.<185>

2016 democratic National Convention

Delegate to the 2016 DNC (click to expand)

See also: autonomous National Convention, 2016
Barack Obama
Democratic nationwide Convention, 2016
Supporting:Hillary Clinton
Delegates come the DNC 2016
Calendar and delegate rules summary • species of delegates • State election law and also delegates • Superdelegates through state

Obama to be a superdelegate come the 2016 autonomous National Convention native Illinois.<186> Obama was among 27 superdelegates from Illinois. Superdelegates come the 2016 autonomous National Convention were no bound by the results of their state’s primary or caucus to support a certain presidential candidate. Obama supported Hillary Clinton because that the autonomous nomination.<187> Clinton formally won the autonomous nomination because that president top top July 26, 2016.<188>

What is a superdelegate?

See also: Superdelegates and the 2016 democratic National Convention

Superdelegates in 2016 were automatic delegates to the autonomous National Convention, definition that, unlike continual delegates, they were not chosen to this position. Likewise unlike consistent delegates, they to be not forced to pledge their assistance to any kind of presidential candidate, and also they were not bound by the results of your state"s presidential main election or caucus. In 2016, superdelegates included members the the democratic National Committee, autonomous members of Congress, democratic governors, and distinguished party leaders, including previous presidents and also vice presidents. All superdelegates were complimentary to support any presidential candidate of their choosing at the 2016 autonomous National Convention.<189>

Illinois primary results

See also: Presidential choice in Illinois, 2016Hillary Clinton won the Illinois democratic primary election, beating Bernie Sanders by less than two percentage points. Clinton brought Cook County, where the city the Chicago is located, 54 to 46 percent. Afri American voters comprised 28 percent of the democratic electorate in Illinois, according to exit poll data. Clinton winner African americans 70 to 30 percent end Sanders.<190>Illinois democratic Primary, 2016
CandidateVote %VotesDelegates
Hillary Clinton 50.6%1,039,55579
Bernie Sanders 48.6%999,49477
Willie Wilson 0.3%6,5650
young name O"Malley 0.3%6,1970
Larry Cohen 0.1%2,4070
Roque De La Fuente 0.1%1,8020
David Formhals 0%250
Brian O"Neill 0%20
Source: The brand-new York Times and also Illinois State board of vote

Delegate allocation

See also: 2016 presidential nominations: calendar and also delegate rules

Illinois had actually 183 delegates in ~ the 2016 autonomous National Convention. The this total, 156 were pledged delegates. National party rule stipulated how autonomous delegates in all states were allocated. Pledged delegates were allocated come a candidate in proportion to the votes the or she obtained in a state"s primary or caucus. A candidate to be eligible to receive a re-publishing of the state"s pledged delegates if the or she winner at least 15 percent the the votes cast in the major or caucus. There were three varieties of pledged autonomous delegates: congressional ar delegates, at-large delegates, and also party leaders and also elected public representative (PLEOs). Congressional district delegates were allocated proportionally based upon the primary or caucus outcomes in a offered district. At-large and also PLEO delegates were allocated proportionally based on statewide major results.<191><192>

Twenty-seven party leaders and also elected officials offered as unpledged delegates. These delegates were not required to adhere to the results of a state"s primary or caucus.<191><193>

Obama and his wife Michelle have actually two girls, Malia and also Sasha. They also shared the White home with their two Portuguese Water Dogs, Bo and also Sunny. Obama won a Grammy compensation in 2006 for the reading of his memoir The desires From my Father, and is an avid reader and sports fan.<194> Obama was nominated, along with actor Zack Galifianakis because that an Emmy award on July 10, 2014, in the exceptional Short-Format Live-Action entertain Program group for his interview on Galifianakis" in between Two Ferns.

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<195> He had actually the White house tennis court adapted to produce a full sized basketball court shortly after acquisition office.<196>

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